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Emerging Zoonoses

 Rabies

Cause

Symptoms

Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention & Control

FAQ

Links

dognchildThe disease due to mad dog bite is called Hydrophobia in man and Rabies in animals. A virus known as rabies virus causes it. The disease occurs when the virus enters into the body and multiplies in the brain. All warm-blooded animals and man are susceptible to this disease. Biting animals like dog, fox, wolf, hyena, jackal etc., transmit the virus to man and animals. Hydrophobia literally means "fear of water'. A person suffering from hydrophobia cannot swallow water; therefore the water enters the respiratory system resulting in severe symptoms. Having experienced the suffering, the patient refuses to drink and is afraid of water.

 

Cause

rabiescause-rabiesRabies is caused by a virus which is present in the brain, salivary glands and saliva of the effected dogs. Therefore when a mad dog, fox, jackal bites the virus enters the wound through saliva.

RabiesSymptoms

RabiesRabies in dogs manifests in two forms the dumb Variety and the Furious Variety.

Abnormal behavior, rejection of food, non-response to owners commands, rolling saliva from mouth, attempting to catch flies without fly being present. Usually leaves the house and runs away. Later attacks man, and animals particularly children. Later develops paralysis and dies. Let a Veterinary Doctor examine the suspected dog. If necessary saliva, eyeball impressions smears or brain material after death are examined in the laboratory to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

RabiesPrevention

First-Aid for Dogbite

RabiesThe wound should be washed with plenty of water repeatedly with any kind soap immediately after the bite. Apply Dettol/ Savlon/ Betadine/ after shave lotion. Whether the bitten dog is apparently mad or not, it is essential to undertake the first aid.

 

Rabies Vaccines

Animal Vaccines

Human Vaccines

Rabies

Tissue Culture Vaccines

Rabies

Tissue Culture Vaccines

Rabies

Annumune

Rabies

Abhyarab

Rabies

Defensor-R

Rabies

Purified Chic Enbryo Vaccine (rabipur)

Rabies

Megavac-R

Rabies

Vero Cell Vaccine (verorab)

Rabies

Nobivac-R

Rabies

Human Diploied Cell Vaccine

Rabies

Rabigen

Rabies

Nerve tissue vaccines

Rabies

Rabisin

Rabies

Phenol inactivated (5%)

Rabies

Rabivac

Rabies

BPL inactivated (5%)

Rabies

Rabisya

 

 

Rabies

Raksharab

 

 

Rabies

Chick embryo vaccines

 

 

Rabies

Flury's vaccine(LEP)

 

 

Rabies

Flury's vaccine(HEP)

 

 

Rabies

Nerve tissue vaccines

  

Rabies

Phenol inactivated (5%, 20%)

  

Rabies

BPL inactivated (5%, 20%)

  
 
Depending upon the site and the intensity of bites, Rabies Antibodies are injected at the site of bite.
Animal RabiesImmunoglobulins
Human Rabies Immunoglobulins

RabiesFAQ

1. What to do in the event of mad dog bite? What is this disease at all?

The disease due to mad dog bite is called Hydrophobia in man and Rabies in animals. A virus known as rabies virus causes it. The disease occurs when the virus enters into the body and multiplies in the brain. All warm-blooded animals and man are susceptible to this disease. Biting animals like dog, fox, wolf, hyena, jackal etc., transmit the virus to man and animals. Hydrophobia literally means "fear of water'. A person suffering from hydrophobia cannot swallow water; therefore the water enters the respiratory system resulting in severe symptoms. Having experienced the suffering, the patient refuses to drink and is afraid of water.

2. Where do rabies virus stay?

The rabies virus is present in the saliva of the affected biting animal like dog.

3. How does hydrophobia occur?

Hydrophobia occurs due to the bite of rabid animals resulting in the introduction of rabies virus into the body. Exceptionally licks or dropping of saliva on a wound may also cause hydrophobia.

4. How does rabid dog look like?

Rabies in dogs manifests in two forms. The dumb form and the furious form. Abnormal behavior, rolling of saliva from the mouth, rejection of food, and non-response to the owner's commands is the usual symptoms. The affected animal usually dies in about a week. It is desirable to get the dog examined by a veterinary doctor.

5. What first aid is to be done in the event of mad dog bite?

The wound should be washed with plenty of water repeatedly with any kind soap immediately after the bite. If delayed the virus enters into the cells and starts multiplying. Apply Dettol/ Savlon/ Betadine/ after shave lotion Consult the nearest doctor for medical help. The wound should not be sutured. Don't kill the dog and get the dog inspected by a Veterinarian. Similar procedure should be followed even if a dog bites your dog.

Whether the bitten dog is apparently mad or not, it is essential to undertake the first aid.

6. What is the medical treatment after the bite of the mad dog?

Rabies vaccination is essential after the mad dog bite. HDC vaccine, PCEC vaccine, VERORAB vaccine are available in the market for human use. These are injected on 0 day, 3rd day, 7th day, 14th day 30th day and 90th day. One more injection is given after one year. The old nerve tissue vaccine is available is the Government institutions and is injected every day for seven days. Some times rabies immunoglobulins are injected at the place of bite under certain circumstances. If the bitten dog was given rabies vaccine earlier [Preserve the dog vaccination card] and is living 7 to 10 days after the bite, the doctor may recommend stopping further doses. It is essential to follow the advice of the doctor regarding treatment. It is absolutely necessary avoid stress during immunization period.

7. Will hydrophobia occur with all dog bites?

Whether a person develops hydrophobia or not depends on several circumstances. The dog must be excreting the virus in the saliva. It must be injected into the wound. After the bite it takes quite some time for the symptoms to develop. First aid should not be delayed considering the exceptions.

8. What are the treatments after the symptoms developed?

There is no treatment after the symptoms develop. The symptoms are horrifying and the patient invariable dies. Therefore prevention is the only method of control.

9. What is the magnitude of the problem in India?

Fifty thousand people die of hydrophobia and fifty lakes of people undergo the rabies treatment following dog bite. Most of the people ate between 5 to 15 year's ages. Dogs and the rest two percent by other animals bite Ninety eight percent of the persons. The annual economic loss runs into crores of rupees.

10. How to eliminate this deadly disease?

All pet dogs should be given rabies vaccine every year. Public must co-operate with municipality in eliminating stray dogs. By implementing birth control method, stray dog population can be reduced. People should be encouraged to adopt stray dogs after rabies vaccination. People must be educated about the consequences of mad dog bite. An injection an year to your dog protects you, your family, your neighbors, your friends as well as your dog and others dogs.

Immunise your dog against Rabies annually.

Rabies
 
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