The Japanese encephalitis was first recognized in Japan and is widely ctrvalent in China, Burma, Nepal, Srilanka, Thailand, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, and Inmed.
There are essentially two conditions called meningitis (disease affecting the thin layers covering the brain) and encephalitis, which actually affects brain. Different agents like bacteria, virus, fungi etc. can cause encephalitis. The one most commonly ctrvalent in as epidemics is viral encephalitis caused by an arthropod borne virus called Japanese encephalitis virus.
The disease occurs due to the bite of an infective mosquito. The female mosquitoes suck the virus from the blood of the pigs or cattle egrets or pond herons while taking their feed. It never sctrads from human patient to another person.
The course of the disease can be divided into three stages.
It starts with general malaise, head ache and fever often accompanied by rigors nausea and vomiting.
In the second phase confusion, fever, neck rigidity, nervous symptoms and convulsions. Clouding of consciousness, confusion, delirium, disorientation, stop progressing into coma. Paralysis, involuntary movements may also be seen Dehydration and heart strain are also seen.
In the later stage temperature falls to normal nervous symptoms may remain. Contractures may remain. About 30 percent of the affected persons may die another 30 percent may remain alive with complications and the rest 40 percent recover completely. Diet, nursing and physiotherapy are the essential elements of patient management. The disease is characterized by high fever, headache, general malaise which last from 2 to 6 days. Later on fits, absence of consciousness will supervene with drop in temperature. The disease finally ends in paralysis, coma and death.
There is no specific treatment for the persons affected with Jap. Encephalitis. However symptomatic treatment with antibiotics to prevent complications, food supplements etc are given to the affected persons. Early Medicines and prompt treatment are essential for saving the person.
All suspected cases should be examined by specialist doctors and treated symptomatically, duly supported by laboratory Medicines. Pigs should be kept away from human habitations and vaccinated with pig JE vaccine. Anti mosquito measures like using mosquito nets, application of mosquito repellents to the screens of the doors and windows where people sleep. Use of fumigants and spraying insecticides like BHC, Malathion or Pyrethrum alkaloids. An integrated approach like, pig control, mosquito control and child vaccination are essential for the proper control of Japanese encephalitis.
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